Controlled studies in pregnant women show no evidence of fetal risk. Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk. Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information. D: Use in LIFE-THREATENING emergencies when no safer drug available. Hyperpigmentation of the skin due to hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine phosphate 250 mg day Plaquenil antimalarial Plaquenil does increase liver enyzmes Disease Entity. Hydroxychloroquine Plaquenil and chloroquine cause ocular toxicity to various parts of the eye such as the cornea, ciliary body, and retina. Chloroquine can also induce cataract formation; however, no reports of hydroxychloroquine and cataract have been reported. This article focuses upon hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Liver biopsies were performed to confirm histologic remission because approximately 55% of the patients with liver enzymes and normal IgG levels still present interface hepatitis in the biopsy and disease relapse in case of treatment discontinuation. 20 However, even normal histology does not completely rule out the possibility of disease. Chloroquine phosphate may cause an upset stomach. Take chloroquine phosphate with food. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Use chloroquine phosphate exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor. Active against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium vivax & P. malariae and most strains of Plasmodium falciparum Precise mechanism not known Bioavailability: ~89% Peak plasma time: 1-2 hr Distributed widely in body tissues (eg, eyes, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs) where retention prolonged; crosses placenta; enters breast milk Partially in liver Half-life: 3-5 days Excretion: urine (~70% as unchanged drug); acidification of urine increases elimination Small amounts may be present in urine months following discontinuation of therapy The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Chloroquine in hepatic dysfunction Chloroquine Aralen - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions., Chloroquine Is Effective for Maintenance of Remission in. Plaquenil cumulative dosePlaquenil for sjogren& 39 Hepatic reactions to quinine are usually due to hypersensitivity reactions and chloroquine has occasionally been linked to allergic phenomenon, which may be accompanied by hepatic involvement. Chloroquine undergoes minor metabolism by the liver ~30% and most is excreted unchanged in the urine. Chloroquine - LiverTox - NCBI Bookshelf. Chloroquine MedlinePlus Drug Information. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the.. Since Chloroquine phosphate tablets are known to concentrate in the liver, it should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease or alcoholism or in conjunction with known hepatotoxic drugs. Central Nervous System Effects Chloroquine may increase the risk of convulsions in patients with a history of epilepsy. Drug Interactions Evidence Acquisition We searched MEDLINE Pub Med, OVID, MD Consult, SCOPUS and the Cochrane database for the following keywords liver disease, anesthesia and liver disease, regional anesthesia in liver disease, epidural anesthesia in liver disease and spinal anesthesia in liver disease, for the period of 1966 to 2013. Hydroxychloroquine is a derivative of chloroquine that has both antimalarial and antiinflammatory activities and is now most often used as an antirheumatologic agent in systemic lupus erythematosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Hydroxychloroquine therapy has not been associated with liver function abnormalities and is an extremely rare cause of clinically apparent acute liver injury.