ANSWER Chloroquine-resistant malaria is exactly what it sounds like—particular types of malaria which are not cured by treatment with chloroquine. Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. What if i accidentally take 2 plaquenil Liquid plaquenil Since then, resistance has spread rapidly since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites, and now chloroquine resistant P. falciparum can. Chloroquine is the drug of choice for travel to areas where chloroquine resistance has not been described. Chloroquine is active against the erythrocytic forms Fig. 6.3 of sensitive strains of all species of malaria, and it is also gametocidal against P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. During the past year, confirmed chloroquine-resistant infections have been described from specific areas in Zambia 3 and Sudan 4; previously, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Madagascar, and the Comoros Islands were acknowledged to have transmission of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. Chloroquine resistance areas Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium vivax review Worldwide., Chloroquine - an overview ScienceDirect Topics Can i take tramadol with hydroxychloroquinePlaquenil and risperdalWhat are the side effects of the medication plaquenilHydroxychloroquine myopathyHydroxychloroquine lose eye sight These interactive maps, based on the WHO global antimalarial drug efficacy database, provide a visual overview of therapeutic efficacy study results, according to malaria species, antimalarial treatment, year and geographic location. WHO Antimalarial drug efficacy maps. Update Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum -- Africa. DRUG RESISTANT MALARIA CURRENT STATUS. Chloroquine resistance was demonstrated for the first time in semi-immune Tanzanians in 1982. 11 The following year, a chloroquine resistance rate of 34% was reported among a Zanzibar school population. 12 Studies conducted between 19 in various areas of the country indicated that the median in vivo resistance rate in school children. Southeast Asia is the epicentre of P falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs. Chloroquine resistance emerged there more than 40 years ago, and within 20 years chloroquine became largely ineffective. Chloroquine is now reserved for P vivax, P malariae, or P ovale in this region. In Thailand, mefloquine was introduced as first-line treatment. The term “chloroquine resistance” can lead to misunderstandings when it is considered by some to refer to in vitro phenotypes, by others to refer to the ability of malaria parasites to survive chloroquine at therapeutic serum concentrations in vivo, and yet by others to refer to the outcome of a clinical episode after chloroquine therapy.