Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. Plaquenil and visual field testing Plaquenil and night sweats Revised recommendations on screening for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and potential chemosensitization and radiosensitization activities. Although the mechanism is not well understood, chloroquine is shown to inhibit the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. Chloroquine retinopathy, is a form of toxic retinopathy damage of the retina caused by the drugs chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, which are sometimes used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus eye toxicity limits long-term use of the drugs. Effect of four different types of single-dose treatment with chloroquine and with chloroquine and pyrimethamine on Plasmodium falciparum infections in a semi-immune population in northern Nigeria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Toxicity of chloroquine Chloroquine Side Effects Common, Severe, Long Term -, Chloroquine retinopathy - Wikipedia Hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroidsNumber needed to treat hydroxychloroquineCan you drink alcohol on hydroxychloroquineChloroquine hydrochloride Chloroquine CQ is used to prevent and treat malaria and amebiasis, while hydroxychloroquine HCQ, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, is used to treat rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus SLE, rheumatoid arthritis RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis JIA and Sjogren's syndrome. Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf. Review of side effects and toxicity of chloroquine / by H. Weniger. Chloroquine - LiverTox - NCBI Bookshelf. Chloroquine was originally used as an anti-malarial therapeutic. Chloroquine is now uncommonly used in favor of its derivative hydroxychloroquine. In the United States, hydroxychloroquine is most often used for its anti-inflammatory effects in rheumatology and dermatology. Its toxic effects on the retina are seen in the macula. Hydroxychloroquine can cause irreversible retinal toxicity, resulting in bilateral bull’s eye retinopathy, but is regarded as less toxic to the retina than chloroquine and it does not cause the corneal deposits seen with chloroquine therapy. Retina Manifestations of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity. The classical definition of chloroquine toxicity is characterized by bilateral pigmentary change of the macula usually sparing the fovea. This has come to be known as bull’s-eye maculopathy. The retinal periphery may also be involved but infrequently.