Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance. It is recommended to check if chloroquine is still effective in the region prior to using it. What is the mode of action of chloroquine Plaquenil dosage for osteoarthritis Can plaquenil cause thrush Spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Myanmar a cross-sectional survey of the K13 molecular marker February 21, 2015 By Leave a Comment Emergence of artemisinin resistance in southeast Asia poses a serious threat to the global control of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All the chloroquine-resistant cases were again treated with chloroquine 1500 mg and no further recrudescence or relapse was detected on days 21 and 28. This study indicates that chloroquine is losing its efficacy against P. vivax in Myanmar. Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Resistance to chloroquine CQ, the first-line treatment for P. vivax, has been reported in the country and has potential to undermine local control efforts. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend against treatment of malaria with chloroquine alone due to more effective combinations. In areas where resistance is present, other antimalarials, such as mefloquine or atovaquone, may be used instead. Chloroquine resistance in myanmar Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar. - Malaria Journal, Development of resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy an emerging problem South East Asia has been implicated in the rise of resistance to both chloroquine and artemisinin. The main explanation is that lower levels of natural malaria immunity exist in the region than in Africa. With no background resistance, the drugs have to do all the work in infected patients in South East Asia. Malaria on Myanmar-India border is 'huge threat' - BBC News. Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar in.. CDC - Malaria - Travelers - Malaria Information and.. High prevalence of chloroquine-resistant P. vivax confirmed in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia; 115 143 also reported in Burma Myanmar, India, and Central and South America. 143 Do not use for prevention of malaria in individuals traveling to malarious areas where chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum or chloroquine-resistant P. vivax malaria reported. 115 134 Background. The resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine has become an obstacle to control strategies based on the use of anti-malarials. The current study investigated the association between P. vivax CQ-resistance in vivo with copy number variation and mutations in the promoter region in pvcrt-o and pvmdr1 genes. A study defining the P. vivax chloroquine-resistant phenotype in Myanmar by therapeutic efficacy study during 2006–2009 reported a clinical failure after 28 days of treatment in Kawthaung 1.7% and two further treatment failures in Buthidaung 3.3%.